Anthocyanins from purple corn activate free fatty acid-receptor 1 and glucokinase enhancing in vitro insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake.

08:00 EDT 11th July 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Anthocyanins from purple corn activate free fatty acid-receptor 1 and glucokinase enhancing in vitro insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake."

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of anthocyanins (ANC) present in purple corn to enhance insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake in pancreatic cells and hepatocytes, through activation of the free fatty acid receptor-1 (FFAR1) and glucokinase (GK), respectively. Using a dual-layer cell culture with Caco-2 cells, INS-1E or HepG2 cells were treated with an anthocyanin-rich extract from the pericarp of purple corn (PCW), as well as pure ANC cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), peonidin-3-O-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside. Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) was used for comparative purposes. Semipurified C3G (C3G-P) and condensed forms (CF-P) isolated from PCW were also used. At 100 μM, the pure ANC enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1E cells ranging from 18% to 40% (p<0.05) compared to untreated cells. PCW increased GSIS by 51%. D3G was the most effective anthocyanin activating FFAR1 (EC50: 196.6 μM). PCW had activating potential on FFAR1 (EC50: 77 μg/mL). PCW, as well as C3G and D3G increased the expression of FFAR1, PLC, and phosphorylation of PKD, related to the FFAR1-dependent insulin secretory pathway. The treatment with 100 μM of P3G and C3G increased (p<0.05) glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by 19% and 31%. PCW increased the glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by 48%. It was determined that CF-P was the most effective for activating GK (EC50: 39.9 μM) and the PCW extracts had an efficacy of EC50: 44 μg/mL. The ANC in purple corn also reduced AMPK phosphorylation and PEPCK expression in HepG2 cells, known to be related to reduction in gluconeogenesis. It is demonstrated for the first time that dietary ANC can enhance the activity of novel biomarkers FFAR1 and GK and potentially ameliorate type-2 diabetes comorbidities.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0200449


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.

A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.

A ceramidase subtype that is active at acid pH. It plays an important role in sphingolipid degradation by catalyzing the lysosomal hydrolysis of ceramide to sphingosine and free fatty acid. Inherited deficiency of acid ceramidase activity results in FARBER LIPOGRANULOMATOSIS.

One of several acid phosphatases in humans, other mammals, plants, and a few prokaryotes. The protein fold of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) resembles that of the catalytic domain of plant purple acid phosphatase and other serine/threonine-protein phosphatases that also contain a metallophosphoesterase domain. One gene produces the various forms which include purple acid phosphatases from spleen and other tissues. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a biomarker for pathological states in which it is over-expressed. Such conditions include GAUCHER DISEASE; HODGKIN DISEASE; BONE RESORPTION; and NEOPLASM METASTASIS.

An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)

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