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The effect of different co-metabolic substrates (glucose, acetic acid and ethanol) on aerobic granular sludge treating cellulose ethanol wastewater was investigated using sequencing batch reactors. The efficiencies of the three substrates in removing chemical oxygen demand were respectively 18.87%, 28.88% and 27.99%, all of which were remarkably higher than without co-metabolic substrates, indicating that co-metabolic substrates can promote the degradation of the refractory substances. With acetic acid as the co-metabolic substrate, the removal amount of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen was greater than glucose and ethanol used. The nitrogen removals by the three co-metabolic substrates were 53.18%, 72.15%, 69.36%, respectively, which were 1.4, 1.8, and 1.6 times the removal without co-metabolic substrates. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that the proportion of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge was greater than that of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria after adding co-metabolic substrates, and the order was acetic acid > ethanol > glucose.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental technology
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Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
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DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...