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Iron is an essential element for eukaryotes as it participates as a redox-active co-factor in many biological processes. Since iron is also potentially toxic, iron levels are carefully regulated. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, iron homeostasis is maintained by the transcriptional control of the iron acquisition systems (iron regulon), mainly by the iron-responsive transcriptional factors Aft1p and Yap5p. Intracellular iron is stored in the vacuole, mobilized for other locations when necessary, particularly for the mitochondria, the major site of iron-utilizing pathways. Mitochondria also play an additional role as a sensor for the regulation of cellular iron acquisition and intracellular distribution. Mounting evidence suggest that iron acquisition systems are not only responsive to iron levels but also to signaling pathways. The most recognized is the activation of the iron regulon at the diauxic shift, oppositely regulated by PKA and SNF1 kinases, major regulators of glucose signaling. Hog1p, a MAP kinase involved in stress responses, also negatively regulates iron uptake by phosphorylating Aft1p. In this review, we address organellar signaling and signal transduction pathways that play a major role in the coordination of iron homeostasis with cell growth and division. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular microbiology
Maintenance of homeostasis requires prompt activation and down-regulation of immune signaling pathways. This review attempts to summarize our current knowledge regarding the negative regulation of two...
Mitochondria are key cell organelles with a prominent role in both energetic metabolism and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Since mitochondria harbor their own genome, which encodes a limited...
Coordination of cell growth with division is essential for proper cell function. In budding yeast, although some molecular mechanisms responsible for cell size control during G1 have been elucidated, ...
The liver is an important iron storage site and a primary MC-LR target. C57BL/6 and Hfe mice were used to investigate effects and mechanisms of MC-LR on systematic iron homeostasis. Body weight, tissu...
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes neurodevelopmental disability. Clinical and animal studies show gestational iron deficiency exacerbates PAE's behavioral and growth deficits. In rat, PAE manifes...
In this study the investigators aim at addressing potential relationships between iron stores and glucose homeostasis. Iron (i.e. Ferric Carboxymaltose) will be perfused to pre-menopausal,...
The goal of this study is to examine the impact of iron overload in patients undergoing a bone marrow transplant. We believe that the iron status in these patients is associated with comp...
The purpose of the study is to determine apoptotic signaling pathways such as Survivin, Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc and caspase-9 expression levels in rats model with iatrogenic endometrial hyperpla...
HCV is associated with vitamin D deficiency. Iron overload is frequently occurred in chronic hepatitis C patients; more than one third of HCV positive patients have elevated serum iron, fe...
High tissue iron is a risk factor for diabetes even within the broad normal range of normal human values. In order to demonstrate the benefits of reducing iron on glucose homeostasis and t...
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A sub-family of smad proteins that inhibit cell signaling by RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. They form autoinhibitory feedback loops in the TGF-BETA signaling pathway and mediate signaling cross-talk with other signaling pathways
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Mergers & Acquisitions
Commercial and market reports on mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device and life-science industries. Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A;) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and manageme...