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Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors have been highlighted in the field of cancer treatment. The interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 is thought to play an important role in the regulation of the self-immune tolerance mechanism, so blocking these molecules may cause serious immune-related adverse events (IrAE), including fulminant insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes. Here, we describe a patient with fulminant type 1 diabetes induced by nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody. The patient, a 78-year-old man, was being treated with nivolumab as a third-line treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. After three cycles, he experienced an abrupt flare-up of the blood glucose within half a day. His blood glucose further increased without clinical symptoms until his hospital visit. Laboratory data showed the complete exhaustion of intrinsic insulin and the elevation of serum antibody titer to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Although the patient was previously diagnosed with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes, his disease activity had been well controlled with oral medication and low-dose insulin therapy until just before the flare-up. Because of the laboratory findings and the extremely rapid onset of hyperglycemia, a diagnosis of fulminant, rather than the rapid onset, type 1 diabetes related to nivolumab therapy was strongly suspected. Our case study indicates that fulminant hyperglycemia can occur extremely rapidly. The blood glucose of patients receiving PD-1 antibody therapy should be closely monitored.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
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A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
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