Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an aging-related movement disorder mainly caused by a deficiency of neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the striatum of the brain and is considered to be due to progressive degeneration of nigro-striatal DA neurons. Most PD is sporadic without family history (sPD), and there are only a few percent of cases of young-onset familial PD (fPD, PARKs) with the chromosomal locations and the genes identified. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-dependent and iron-containing monooxygenase, catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines (DA, noradrenaline, and adrenaline). PD affects specifically TH-containing catecholamine neurons. The most marked neurodegeneration in patients with DA deficiency is observed in the nigro-striatal DA neurons, which contain abundant TH. Accordingly, TH has been speculated to play some important roles in the pathophysiology in PD. However, this decrease in TH is thought to be secondary due to neurodegeneration of DA neurons caused by some as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors, and thus, TH deficiency may not play a direct role in PD. This manuscript provides an overview of the role of human TH in the pathophysiology of PD, covering the following aspects: (1) structures of the gene and protein of human TH in relation to PD; (2) similarity and dissimilarity between the phenotypes of aging-related sPD and those of young-onset fPD or DOPA-responsive dystonia due to DA deficiency in the striatum with decreased TH activity caused by mutations in either the TH gene or GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) gene; and (3) genetic variants of the TH gene (polymorphisms, rare variants, and mutations) in PD, as discovered recently by advanced genome analysis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
3-iodo-L-tyrosine might play a role in Parkinson's disease since this molecule is able, at high concentration, to inhibit tyrosine-hydroxylase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthes...
Neuropsychiatric disorders are common among patients with Parkinson's disease and may appear in any stage of the disease. However, these disorders often go undiagnosed and receive insufficient treatme...
To determine if autonomic dysfunction, cognitive disorders or axial disability are associated with white matter lesions (WML) in Parkinson disease (PD).
Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease and frequently precede the development of motor impairments. Intestinal inflammation has been proposed as a driver of disease pathology, and...
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) comprise abnormal behaviors frequently found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving antiparkinsonian medication. ICDs in PD would develop when dopaminergi...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate efficacy of tyrosine as a treatment for methamphetamine dependence in an outpatient treatment setting providing group psychosocial interventions. ...
The aim of this study is to assess the implicitement of the cholesterol 24 S hydroxylase gene and the 24 S hydroxycholesterol in glaucoma and in age related macular degeneration.
The purpose is to explore the frequency of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's patients treated with different Parkinson's medications.
The purpose of this pilot program is to develop and evaluate a new treatment program for depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). The treatment uses Cognitive Behavior Therapy(CBT)to teach ...
Up to 60% of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients suffer from REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), a parasomnia. This disorder is thought to be related to a dysfunction of limbic system and bra...
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
These disorders are related to both SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM AND RELATED DISORDERS and DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS in terms of symptomatology, family history, and genetics. (DSM-V) .
Proteins associated with sporadic or familial cases of PARKINSON DISEASE.
A dopamine D2 agonist. It is used in the treatment of parkinson disease, particularly for alleviation of tremor. It has also been used for circulatory disorders and in other applications as a D2 agonist.
Parkinson's is a progressive neurological condition, affecting one person in every 500, 95% of which are over 40. It is caused by degeneration of more than 70% of the substantia nigra, which depletes the dopamine (the neurotransmitter involved in pro...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...