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Trophoblast survival is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. While the pharmacological levels (10-100 ng/mL) of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α affect trophoblasts survival in vitro, the effects of the physiological levels (1-10 pg/mL) of TNF-α remain unknown. We investigated the effects of the physiological levels of TNF-α on proliferation and apoptosis of human trophoblast cells by using BeWo cells. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is also a potent regulator of trophoblast survival and has been known to exert synergistic effects with other hormones. The interaction of IGF-I and TNF-α on BeWo cells survival was also examined.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
Metallic nanomaterials are utilized in an increasing number of applications in medicine and industry. Their general toxicity was tested in numerous reports both in vitro and in vivo but limited data e...
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A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that has specificity FAS LIGAND and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. It plays a modulating role in tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS that plays a role in the inhibition of endothelial cell growth and PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...
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