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Trophoblast survival is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. While the pharmacological levels (10-100 ng/mL) of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α affect trophoblasts survival in vitro, the effects of the physiological levels (1-10 pg/mL) of TNF-α remain unknown. We investigated the effects of the physiological levels of TNF-α on proliferation and apoptosis of human trophoblast cells by using BeWo cells. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is also a potent regulator of trophoblast survival and has been known to exert synergistic effects with other hormones. The interaction of IGF-I and TNF-α on BeWo cells survival was also examined.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
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A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that has specificity FAS LIGAND and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. It plays a modulating role in tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS that plays a role in the inhibition of endothelial cell growth and PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
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