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Autoimmune disorders are becoming increasingly recognized within the broader field of neurology. The discovery of multiple, novel, neutrally targeted autoantibodies over the past decade and their translation into commercially available testing, in particular, has aided in the more rapid diagnosis of these disorders. When considering imaging in autoimmune neurologic disorders, it is important, when possible, to visualize the autoimmune process itself, as well as to make sure that the patient does not have an associated malignancy driving the overall process. Positron emission tomographic scans can aid in the detection of small tumors with limited spread, as well as in the visualization of autoimmune processes affecting the brain and/or spinal cord. In autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system, imaging abnormalities can appear within the limbic system, extralimbic areas, and spinal cord. Such imaging abnormalities can serve as objective markers to follow over time to assess patients' responses to treatment. It is important to recognize that overlapping syndromes (for instance, both demyelinating and autoimmune or both infectious and autoimmune) exist and that inflammatory disorders can leave behind sequelae that can be recognized on subsequent imaging. Work is currently underway to develop more specific imaging techniques for autoimmune neurologic disorders.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in neurology
The field of autoimmune neurology is evolving rapidly. The discovery of autoantibodies that target neural antigens has expanded swiftly in the last decade. Recognition of the clinical syndromes associ...
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Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Autoimmune disorders are conditions that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders. Normally the immune system's white blood cells help protect ...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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