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Ischemic stroke is a devastating brain injury, resulting in high mortality and significant loss-of-function. Understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke risk, mortality and functional loss is critical to novel therapeutic development. Age and sex have a complex and interactive effect on ischemic stroke risk and pathophysiology. Aging is the strongest non-modifiable risk factor for ischemic stroke, and aged stroke patients have higher mortality, morbidity and poorer functional recovery than their young counterparts. Importantly, patient age modifies the influence of patient sex in ischemic stroke. Early in life, the burden of ischemic stroke is higher in males, but becomes more common and debilitating for women in elderly populations. The profound effects of sex and age on clinical ischemic stroke are mirrored in the results of experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. Here, we will review current knowledge on the influence of age and sex in ischemic stroke incidence, mortality and functional outcome in clinical populations. We will also discuss the experimental evidence for sex- and age- differences in stroke pathophysiology, and how a better understanding of these biological variables can improve clinical care and enhance novel therapeutic development.
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The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
A drug combination of aspirin and dipyridamole that functions as a PLATELET AGGREGATION INHIBITOR, used to prevent THROMBOSIS and STROKE in TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK patients.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Hepatocyte nuclear factors are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in HEPATOCYTES. They play important roles in liver-specific transcription and are critical for CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.
Restoration of functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from a stroke.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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Stroke - Cerebrovascular Disease (CVA)
A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency and prompt treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is ...