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There are minimum levels of water activity that are required for growth of bacteria and molds. Water activity is the ratio of vapor pressure of water in a product to pure water at the same temperature. Pure distilled water has a water activity of 1. Water activity is also a measure of water in a material that is available to react with or attach itself to other material; it is also called "free" water while the unavailable water is called "bound" water. Higher water activity substances tend to support more microorganisms; bacteria usually require water activity values of at least 0.91 and fungi at least 0.6. Every microorganism has a limit of water activity below which it will not grow. To lower water activity, one can add or change the concentrations of ingredients such as sodium chloride, sucrose, alcohol, propylene glycol, or glycerin so the preparation becomes self-preserving. Also, if the preparation has too high a water activity and the addition of other substances to lower the water activity, then a preservative may be required for the preparation. Nonaqueous liquids or dry solids will not support spore germination or microbial growth due to their low water activity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of pharmaceutical compounding
To explore the effect and experience of quality control circle(QCC) in quality control testing for CT scanners, the quality control circle group was set up to determine the theme of quality control ci...
This study aims at assessing the determinants of microbiological contamination of household drinking water under multiple-use water systems in rural areas of Ethiopia. For this analysis, a random samp...
Improved water quality reduces diarrhea, but the impact of improved water quality on Ascaris and Trichuris, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) conveyed by the fecal-oral route, is less well described. T...
Attention control groups strengthen randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions, but researchers need to give careful consideration to the attention control activities. A comparative effe...
This study used automated enzymatic activity measurements conducted from a mobile research vessel to detect the spatial variability of beta‑d‑glucuronidase (GLUC) activity in large freshwater bodi...
The primary purpose of this interventional, placebo controlled, crossover, double blind, basic science exploratory study is to investigate whether there is a difference in brain electrophy...
This is a study to compare two different, but normally, used methods of colonoscopy in patients that require a routine or repeat colonoscopy. There will be three arms in this study: WE wat...
Municipal water networks within industrialized countries typically rely on centralized treatment to manage piped water quality. Optimal water quality at the tap, however, requires well-mai...
A randomized control trial (RCT) is planned to evaluate a web-based intervention (CardioFit) against usual care in increasing physical activity levels in patients with Coronary Artery Dise...
This is a study to compare two different, but normally, used methods of colonoscopy in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation. There will be two arms in this study: WE (water exc...
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
Authoritative resources describing the composition, properties, manufacture, and quality control of HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...