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Globally, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing health and economic challenge that has no effective cure. Recent clinical trials indicate that preclinical treatment may be required but a routine screening tool for AD has been elusive. Hence, a simple, yet sensitive biomarker for preclinical AD, when the disease is most likely to be amenable to treatment, is lacking. Due to several features, the eye has been explored for this purpose and, among the ocular tissues, the retina has received the most attention. Currently, major works investigating the potential AD diagnosis by detecting amyloid-β (Aβ) signatures in the retinal tissue are underway, while the anterior eye is more accessible for in vivo imaging and examination. This report provides a concise review of current literature on the anterior eye components, including the crystalline lens, cornea, and aqueous humor, in AD. We also discuss the potential for assessment of the corneal nerve structure and regeneration as well as conjunctival tissue for AD-related alterations. The crystalline lens has received considerable attention, but further research is required to confirm whether Aβ accumulates in the lens and whether it mirrors brain neuropathologic changes, particularly in preclinical AD. The rich corneal neural network and conjunctival vasculature also merit exploration in future studies to shed light on their potential association with AD pathologic changes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
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Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
A breach in the continuity of the ANTERIOR CHAMBER of the eyeball.
A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.
A precursor to the AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN (beta/A4). Alterations in the expression of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (ABPP) gene, located on chromosome 21, plays a role in the development of the neuropathology common to both ALZHEIMER DISEASE and DOWN SYNDROME. ABPP is associated with the extensive extracellular matrix secreted by neuronal cells. Upon cleavage, this precursor produces three proteins of varying amino acid lengths: 695, 751, and 770. The beta/A4 (695 amino acids) or beta-amyloid protein is the principal component of the extracellular amyloid in senile plaques found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DOWN SYNDROME and, to a limited extent, in normal aging.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
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