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Cardenolides are plant-derived toxic substances. Their cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanistic signaling axes have been extensively documented, but only a few anti-viral activities of cardenolides and the associated signaling pathways have been reported. Previously, we reported that a variety of cardenolides impart anti-transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) activity in swine testicular (ST) cells, through targeting of the cell membrane sodium/potassium pump, Na/K-ATPase. Herein, we further explore the potential signaling cascades associated with this anti-TGEV activity in ST cells. Ouabain, a representative cardenolide, was found to potently diminish TGEV titers and inhibit the TGEV-induced production of IL-6 in a dose dependent manner, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 37 nM and 23 nM respectively. By pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing, we demonstrated that PI3K_PDK1_RSK2 signaling was induced in TGEV-infected ST cells, and ouabain imparted a degree of anti-TGEV activity via further augmentation of this existing PI3K_PDK1 axis signaling, in a manner dependent upon its association with the Na/K-ATPase. Finally, inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 or PDK1 by BX795 antagonized the anti-viral activity of ouabain and restored the TGEV virus titer and yields. This finding is the first report of a PI3K_PDK1 signaling axis further induced by ouabain and implicated in the suppression of TGEV activity and replication; greatly illuminates the underlying mechanism of cardenolide toxicity; and is expected to result in one or more anti-viral applications for the cardenolides in the future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Toxicology and applied pharmacology
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A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Endoproteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains.
ATP-dependent cellular enzyme which catalyzes DNA replication, repair and recombination through formation of internucleotide ester bonds between phosphate and deoxyribose moieties. Vertebrate cells encode three well-characterized DNA ligases, DNA ligase I, III and IV, all of which are related in structure and sequence. DNA ligases either require ATP or NAD. However, archaebacterial, viral, and some eubacterial DNA ligases are ATP-dependent.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 22.214.171.124.
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