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Transdermal estradiol (TE) application (using gels, patches or a novel spray) is now a preferred route of hormone therapy (HT) in menopausal women, because various risks such as venous thromboembolism, stroke and unwanted hepatic effects can be reduced compared with oral HT. However, in the presence of an intact uterus, concurrent administration of progestogen is needed for endometrial protection. Due to the variety of progestogens available and differences in their clinical effects, the selection of the most appropriate substance and dosing for individual combination therapy can be difficult. This is especially true for TE gels and the novel spray because no fixed combination products are commercially available, meaning all progestogens must be added separately, and even for patches only two transdermal synthetic progestogens are available. The aim of this review was to summarize data on the endometrial effects of the different progestogens and to provide practical recommendations for the choice of progestogen (type and dosing), with a focus on endometrial protection when using TE, especially when using the novel estradiol (E2) spray.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
Estradiol and progesterone bioavailability for moderate to severe vasomotor symptom treatment and endometrial protection with the continuous-combined regimen of TX-001HR (oral estradiol and progesterone capsules).
In the REPLENISH trial, women receiving TX-001HR-an oral, softgel capsule, combining 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (E2 mg/P4 mg 1/100, 0.5/100), had significantly improved vasomotor symptoms, w...
The contraceptive pill is an effective and very safe method to control pregnancies. It was developed 60 years ago, and despite that the composition has been the same since it was first developed (estr...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of novel estradiol metered-dose transdermal spray (EMDTS) in the treatment of acute climacteric syndrome.
Effect of exogenous estrogens and progestogens on the course of migraine during reproductive age: a consensus statement by the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESCRH).
We systematically reviewed data about the effect of exogenous estrogens and progestogens on the course of migraine during reproductive age. Thereafter a consensus procedure among international experts...
Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, plays a crucial role in regulation of neuroendocrine and defensive functions, free radicals neutralization, and suppresses angiogenesis, proliferation and cancer. ...
The primary objective of this study was to compare the adhesive quality of the current Mylan estradiol placebo transdermal system, with that of an alternate second generation Mylan estradi...
The purpose of this study is to compare pregnancy outcomes of frozen-thawed embryo transfer after endometrial preparation with vaginal estradiol or transdermal estradiol and to evaluate wo...
This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, semi-blinded study to compare two low doses of estradiol administered by recently available transdermal patches for the initiation of puberty...
To determine the lowest effective dose of estradiol by comparing E2/LNG (2.2mg/0.69mg) and E2 (1.0mg) dose with placebo in decreasing the frequency and severity of moderate to severe hot f...
We hypothesize that the addition of oral naproxen or transdermal estradiol will decrease the number of days of unscheduled bleeding experienced by first-time users of the levonorgestrel in...
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Neoplasms of the endometrial stroma that sometimes involve the MYOMETRIUM. These tumors contain cells that may closely or remotely resemble the normal stromal cells. Endometrial stromal neoplasms are divided into three categories: (1) benign stromal nodules; (2) low-grade stromal sarcoma, or endolymphatic stromal myosis; and (3) malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma (SARCOMA, ENDOMETRIAL STROMAL).
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
The extension of endometrial tissue (ENDOMETRIUM) into the MYOMETRIUM. It usually occurs in women in their reproductive years and may result in a diffusely enlarged uterus with ectopic and benign endometrial glands and stroma.
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...
Stroke - Cerebrovascular Disease (CVA)
A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency and prompt treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is ...