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Bone metastasis is one of the most common forms of metastasis from a number of different primary carcinomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression to control essential pathways, including those involved in bone organogenesis and homeostasis. As these pathways are often hijacked during bone metastasis, it is not surprising that miRNAs can also influence bone metastasis formation. Areas covered: In this review, we first summarize the major signalling pathways involved in normal bone development and bone metastasis. We will then discuss the overall roles of miRNAs in cancer metastasis and highlight the recent findings on the effects of miRNAs in bone metastasis. To this aim, we have performed a literature search in PubMed by using the search words 'miRNAs' and 'bone metastasis', selecting relevant scientific articles published between 2010 and 2016. Seminal publications before 2010 on the metastatic role of miRNAs have also been considered. Expert commentary: With the lack of current diagnostic biomarkers and effective targeted therapies for bone metastasis, the significant role of miRNAs in the regulation of bone homeostasis and bone metastasis may support the future use of miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Expert review of endocrinology & metabolism
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Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES.
A type of osseous tissue which makes up the inner part of bone. It has a spongy, honeycomb-like structure with struts or trabecula and contains the BONE MARROW. It has higher rate of BONE REMODELING turnover than CORTICAL BONE.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
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The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
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