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Despite the reported achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with respect to drinking water, lack of access to water remains widespread worldwide. The indicator used there to measure access to water in the MDGs refers to the use of an improved water source. However, the amount of time spent in collecting water is high in countries where access to drinking water supplies located on premises is not common. 26.3% of the world's population did not have such access in 2015. Thus the need to travel to a water point, possibly queue, fill water containers, and carry them home is prevalent. The amount of time and effort used in water collection can be considerable, and household surveys increasingly provide data on collection time. This study aims to demonstrate the effect of adding a 30-minute collection time component to monitor access to drinking water. This study draws on household surveys from 17 countries to highlight the widespread burden of fetching water and its significant impact on estimates of coverage. The proportion of the population with access decreased by 13% on average for these 17 countries when collection time was added as a consideration.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of water and health
Universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene in Indonesia are vital to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
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This study evaluates the effect of alkaline (pH=9) versus neutral (pH=9) drinking-water on the gut microbiota of healthy male volunteers.
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Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Illnesses due to micro-organisms and chemicals in drinking water, those caused by organisms having part of their lifecycle in water or those with water-related vectors, and others spread by aerosols containing pathogens.
Water that is intended to be ingested.