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High-energy ionizing radiation in the form of solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays is pervasive on the surface of planetary bodies with thin atmospheres or in space facilities for humans, and it may seriously affect the chemistry and the structure of organic and biological material. We used fluorescent microarray immunoassays to assess how different doses of electron and gamma radiations affect the stability of target compounds such as biological polymers and small molecules (haptens) conjugated to large proteins. The radiation effect was monitored by measuring the loss in the immunoidentification of the target due to an impaired ability of the antibodies for binding their corresponding irradiated and damaged epitopes (the part of the target molecule to which antibodies bind). Exposure to electron radiation alone was more damaging at low doses (1 kGy) than exposure to gamma radiation alone, but this effect was reversed at the highest radiation dose (500 kGy). Differences in the dose-effect immunoidentification patterns suggested that it was the amount (dose) and not the type of radiation the main factor for the cumulative damage on the majority of the assayed molecules. Molecules irradiated with both types of radiation showed a response similar to that of the individual treatments at increasing radiation doses, although the pattern obtained with electrons only was the most similar. The calculated radiolysis constant did not show a unique pattern, it rather suggested a different behavior perhaps associated with the unique structure of each molecule. Although not strictly comparable with extraterrestrial conditions because the irradiations were performed under air and at room temperature, our results may contribute to understand the effects of ionizing radiation on complex molecules and the search for biomarkers through bioaffinity-based systems in planetary exploration. Key Words: Electron radiation-Gamma radiation-Molecular biomarker-Antibody microarray-Epitope-Immunoidentification-Planetary exploration. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.
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Supramolecular networks that consist of ordered arrangements of organic electron donor linkers (usually ditopic or polytopic organic carboxylates) and metal cations. They can have an extremely high surface area and adjustable pore size that allows for the insertion of other molecules capable of various functions such as catalysis, capture of carbon dioxide, and drug delivery.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
A homolog of ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN that plays a role in neurofilament network integrity. It is overexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS and may be involved in modulating AXON architecture during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult. Gamma-Synuclein may also activate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS associated with ETS-DOMAIN PROTEIN ELK-1.
A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A DNA microarray or biochip is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface used to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome.
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...