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After replanting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on the same site severe growth suppressions, and a decline in yield and fruit quality are observed in all apple producing areas worldwide. The causes of this complex phenomenon, called apple replant disease (ARD), are only poorly understood up to now which is in part due to inconsistencies in terms and methodologies. Therefore we suggest the following definition for
ARD describes a harmfully disturbed physiological and morphological reaction of apple plants to soils that faced alterations in their (micro-) biome due to the previous apple cultures. The underlying interactions likely have multiple causes that extend beyond common analytical tools in microbial ecology. They are influenced by soil properties, faunal vectors, and trophic cascades, with genotype-specific effects on plant secondary metabolism, particularly phytoalexin biosynthesis. Yet, emerging tools allow to unravel the soil and rhizosphere (micro-) biome, to characterize alterations of habitat quality, and to decipher the plant reactions. Thereby, deep insights into the reactions taking place at the root rhizosphere interface will be gained. Counteractions are suggested, taking into account that culture management should emphasize on improving soil microbial and faunal diversity as well as habitat quality rather than focus on soil disinfection.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current issues in molecular biology
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Strategies required by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. These constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with prevention or mitigation of a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.