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Venous thromboembolism, factor VIII and chronic kidney disease.

08:00 EDT 31st July 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Venous thromboembolism, factor VIII and chronic kidney disease."

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 30 million Americans and is associated with approximately a two-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is a graded increased risk of VTE across declining kidney function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. When patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) experience VTE they are more likely than the general population to be hospitalized and they have a higher mortality. The incidence and consequences of VTE may also differ depending on the cause of kidney disease. In addition, kidney transplant patients with VTE are at a greater risk for death and graft loss than transplant patients without VTE. The reasons that patients with CKD are at increased risk of VTE are not well understood, but recent data suggest that factor VIII is a mediator. Factor VIII is an essential cofactor in the coagulation cascade and a strong risk factor for VTE in general. It is inversely correlated with eGFR and prospective studies demonstrate that factor VIII activity predicts incident CKD and rapid eGFR decline. The etiology of CKD may also influence factor VIII levels. This review summarizes the epidemiology VTE in CKD and reviews the biochemistry of factor VIII and determinants of its levels, including von Willebrand factor and ABO blood group. We explore mechanisms by which the complications of CKD might give rise to higher factor VIII and suggests future research directions to understand how factor VIII and CKD are linked.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Thrombosis research
ISSN: 1879-2472
Pages: 10-19

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)

Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.

The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).

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