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Background Reports on the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death among young athletes have relied largely on estimated rates of participation and varied methods of reporting. We sought to investigate the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death among adolescent soccer players in the United Kingdom. Methods From 1996 through 2016, we screened 11,168 adolescent athletes with a mean (±SD) age of 16.4±1.2 years (95% of whom were male) in the English Football Association (FA) cardiac screening program, which consisted of a health questionnaire, physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. The FA registry was interrogated to identify sudden cardiac deaths, which were confirmed with autopsy reports. Results During screening, 42 athletes (0.38%) were found to have cardiac disorders that are associated with sudden cardiac death. A further 225 athletes (2%) with congenital or valvular abnormalities were identified. After screening, there were 23 deaths from any cause, of which 8 (35%) were sudden deaths attributed to cardiac disease. Cardiomyopathy accounted for 7 of 8 sudden cardiac deaths (88%). Six athletes (75%) with sudden cardiac death had had normal cardiac screening results. The mean time between screening and sudden cardiac death was 6.8 years. On the basis of a total of 118,351 person-years, the incidence of sudden cardiac death among previously screened adolescent soccer players was 1 per 14,794 person-years (6.8 per 100,000 athletes). Conclusions Diseases that are associated with sudden cardiac death were identified in 0.38% of adolescent soccer players in a cohort that underwent cardiovascular screening. The incidence of sudden cardiac death was 1 per 14,794 person-years, or 6.8 per 100,000 athletes; most of these deaths were due to cardiomyopathies that had not been detected on screening. (Funded by the English Football Association and others.).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The New England journal of medicine
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The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
An adolescent who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Adolescent hospitalized for short term care.
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Congenital conditions are those which are present from birth. They include structural deformities or loss of function in organs such as the <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->heart, gut or skeletal system. They can be corrected by <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->surgery, m...