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Despite the widespread use of seasonal influenza vaccines, there is urgent need for a universal influenza vaccine to provide broad, long-term protection. A number of factors underpin this urgency, including threats posed by zoonotic and pandemic influenza A viruses, suboptimal effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines, and concerns surrounding the effects of annual vaccination. In this article, we discuss approaches that are being investigated to increase influenza vaccine breadth, which are near-term, readily achievable approaches to increase the range of strains recognized within a subtype, or longer-term more challenging approaches to produce a truly universal influenza vaccine. Adjuvanted and neuraminidase-optimized vaccines are emerging as the most feasible and promising approaches to extend protection to cover a broader range of strains within a subtype. The goal of developing a universal vaccine has also been advanced with the design of immunogenic influenza HA-stem constructs that induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, these constructs are not yet sufficiently immunogenic to induce lasting universal immunity in humans. Advances in understanding how T cells mediate protection, and how viruses are packaged, have facilitated the rationale design and delivery of replication-incompetent virus vaccines that induce broad protection mediated by lung-resident memory T cells. While the lack of clear mechanistic correlates of protection, other than haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies, remains an impediment to further advancing novel influenza vaccines, the pressing need for such a vaccine is supporting development of highly innovative and effective strategies.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed or attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Influenza or 'flu' is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Symptoms frequently include headache, fever, cough, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. There is a wide spectrum of severity of illness ranging from min...
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