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Brucella melitensis is the causative pathogen of the zoonotic disease brucellosis in China. This work focused on analyses of genetic features represented by nucleotide, synonymous codon and amino acid usages at gene levels of B. melitensis strain QY1 isolated from China. Although nucleotide usage biases at different codon positions all work on synonymous codon usage bias, nucleotide usage biases at the 1st and 3rd positions play more important roles in codon usages. Mutation pressure caused by nucleotide composition constraint influences the formation of over-representative synonymous codons, but neighboring nucleotides surrounding a codon strongly influence synonymous codon usage bias for B. melitensis strain QY1. There is significant correlation between amino acid usage bias and hydropathicity of proteins for B. melitensis strain QY1. Compared with different Brucella species about synonymous codon usage patterns, synonymous codon usages are not obviously influenced by hosts. Due to nucleotide usage bias at the 1st codon position influencing synonymous codon and amino acid usages, good interactions among nucleotide, synonymous codon and amino acid usages exist in the evolutionary process of B. melitensis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a focally endemic tick-transmitted zoonotic infection. In this study, the major factors underlying synonymous codon-related amino acid usage in the B. ...
The helicase gene of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is not only involved in viral DNA replication, but also plays a role in viral host range. To identify the codon usage...
Increasing growth rate across bacteria strengthens selection for faster translation, concomitantly increasing the total number of tRNA genes and codon usage bias (CUB: enrichment of specific synonymou...
Stop codons are frequently selected for beyond their regular termination function for error control. The 'ambush hypothesis' proposes out of frame stop codons (OSCs) terminating frameshifted translati...
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a highly contagious acute respiratory poultry pathogen. Modified live ILTV vaccines are the only control against ILT infections. Reversions and establishme...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the innate immune system. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in particular, appears to play a role in susceptibility to cancer. Of 44 identified SNPs...
This study of the tolerance and acceptability of an amino acid based feed will assess gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance, product intake and acceptability in relation to taste, smell, texture...
Protein requirements in individuals who participate in endurance-based exercise training have been suggested to be greater than the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The biolog...
The aim is to assess the impact of physical inactivity on muscle amino acid balance. In addition, we will evaluate how the diet and/or a pharmacological intervention designed to manipulate...
In a recent randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial, serum growth hormone (hGH) increased 682% above baseline 120 minutes after oral administration of an amino acid-based dieta...
An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the last amino acid is added to a lengthening polypeptide. This termination is signaled from the MESSENGER RNA, by one of three termination codons (CODON, TERMINATOR) that immediately follows the last amino acid-specifying CODON.
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...