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The objective of this study was to encapsulate a synthetic compound, the 4-[(2E)-N'-(2,2'-bithienyl-5-methylene)hydra-zinecarbonyl]-6,7-dihydro-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazin-7-one (T6) in glucan-rich particles mainly composed by the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GPs) and to study their individual and combined activity on Leishmania infantum. The possible mechanism of action of T6 was also investigated. Our results showed the activity of T6 compound in both promastigote (IC = 2.5 μg/mL) and intracellular amastigote (IC = 1.23 μg/mL) forms. We also found activity against intracellular amastigote forms (IC = 8.20 μg/ml) when the T6 compound was encapsulated in GPs. Another interesting finding was the fact that T6 encapsulated in GPs showed a significant decrease in J774A1 macrophage toxicity (CC ≥ 18.53 μg/mL) compared to the T6 compound alone (IC = 2.27 μg/mL). Through electron microscopy and biochemical methodologies, we verified that the activity of T6 in promastigote forms of L. infantum was characterized by events of cell death by apoptosis like increased ROS production, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation. We conclude that T6 can be considered a promising anti-Leishmania compound, and that the use of GPs for drug encapsulation is an interesting approach to the development of new effective and less toxic formulations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of biological macromolecules
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A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
A synthetic pregnadiene compound with anti-aldosterone activity.
A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.
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