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The antioxidants role in cell response regulation attracted great interest in the last decades and it is undergoing to a profound reconsideration. The mere concept of "biological antioxidant" has been frequently misconceived or misused, possibly leading to the misinterpretation of some experimental observation. Organosulfur compounds in general and α-lipoic acid, a dithiol molecule, can be considered a typical example of the kind. Reduced α-lipoic acid, dehydrolipoic acid has been in fact originally considered a bona fide, reducing, electron donor molecule. A more recent approach, according to stoichiometric and thermodynamic evidences, lead to a reinterpretation of the biochemical role of "antioxidants". The electrophilic nature of oxidized nucleophilic molecules, including α-lipoic acid, renders more plausible a mechanism based on the ability to activate Nrf2/EpRE mediated hormetic response. In this study, we demonstrate that nmolar concentrations of oxidized α-lipoic acid, but not dehydrolipoic acid, protect human umbilical primary endothelial cells (HUVEC) from TNF-α induced dysfunction, inhibit NF-κB activation and block apoptosis following the activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. Our observations corroborate the concept that the major, if not the unique, mechanism by which α-lipoic acid can non-enzymatically exert its reducing activity is related to the electrophilic nature of the oxidized form.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
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α-Lipoic acid is amphipathic with low molecular sulphur-containing fatty acid and has strong antioxidant effects. It has been used at the purposes of anti-ageing, treatment of diabetic neuropathy, an...
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To assess the impact of an antioxidant preparation with N-acetyl cysteine, alpha lipoic acid and bromelain on endometriosis-associated pelvic pain.
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(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...