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Alpha-lipoic acid, but not di-hydrolipoic acid, activates Nrf2 response in primary human umbilical-vein endothelial cells and protects against TNF-α induced endothelium dysfunction.

08:00 EDT 7th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Alpha-lipoic acid, but not di-hydrolipoic acid, activates Nrf2 response in primary human umbilical-vein endothelial cells and protects against TNF-α induced endothelium dysfunction."

The antioxidants role in cell response regulation attracted great interest in the last decades and it is undergoing to a profound reconsideration. The mere concept of "biological antioxidant" has been frequently misconceived or misused, possibly leading to the misinterpretation of some experimental observation. Organosulfur compounds in general and α-lipoic acid, a dithiol molecule, can be considered a typical example of the kind. Reduced α-lipoic acid, dehydrolipoic acid has been in fact originally considered a bona fide, reducing, electron donor molecule. A more recent approach, according to stoichiometric and thermodynamic evidences, lead to a reinterpretation of the biochemical role of "antioxidants". The electrophilic nature of oxidized nucleophilic molecules, including α-lipoic acid, renders more plausible a mechanism based on the ability to activate Nrf2/EpRE mediated hormetic response. In this study, we demonstrate that nmolar concentrations of oxidized α-lipoic acid, but not dehydrolipoic acid, protect human umbilical primary endothelial cells (HUVEC) from TNF-α induced dysfunction, inhibit NF-κB activation and block apoptosis following the activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. Our observations corroborate the concept that the major, if not the unique, mechanism by which α-lipoic acid can non-enzymatically exert its reducing activity is related to the electrophilic nature of the oxidized form.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
ISSN: 1096-0384
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(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.

(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.

(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.

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