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To use a diagnostic test effectively and consistently in their practice, clinicians need to know how well the test distinguishes between those patients who have the suspected acute or chronic disease and those patients who do not. Clinicians are equally interested and usually more concerned whether, based on the results of a screening test, a given patient actually: (1) does or does not have the suspected disease; or (2) will or will not subsequently experience the adverse event or outcome. Medical tests that are performed to screen for a risk factor, diagnose a disease, or to estimate a patient's prognosis are frequently a key component of a clinical research study. Like therapeutic interventions, medical tests require proper analysis and demonstrated efficacy before being incorporated into routine clinical practice. This basic statistical tutorial, thus, discusses the fundamental concepts and techniques related to diagnostic testing and medical decision-making, including sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio, receiver operating characteristic curve, diagnostic accuracy, choosing a best cut-point for a continuous variable biomarker, comparing methods on diagnostic accuracy, and design of a diagnostic accuracy study.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Anesthesia and analgesia
Recent research on aesthetics has challenged the adage that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder" by identifying several factors that predict ratings of beauty. However, this research has emerged in ...
dementia is a common cause of altered decision-making capacity. Determining whether an individual has the ability to make a specific decision can be very challenging for both clinicians and researcher...
Purpose Many adolescent girls in Nigeria do not test for HIV despite being at high risk. While the influence of psychosocial factors on HIV testing has been examined, there is less evidence regarding ...
Understanding diagnostic test outcomes requires determining the positive predictive value (PPV) of the test, which most laypeople and medical professionals struggle to do. Despite advances found with ...
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) often report difficulties in decision making, which may interfere with treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate decision making in a large sample of adol...
This is an educational intervention study testing the effects of decision aids in promoting patient participation in early stage prostate cancer treatment decision making. The purpose of t...
The study aimed to understand how payoffs for others influence perceptual decision making. The research consists in testing how varying monetary payoffs for another modify the perceptual d...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an extremely common disease with inadequately explored neurocognitive consequences. The investigators will study OSA patients before and after treatment to...
Patients diagnosed with T3/T4 laryngeal cancer in general have several treatment options available. In order to help these patients in the decision making process, MAASTRO CLINIC designed ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate neural mechanism of healthy humans underlying group decision making and compare it with that of individual decision-making. Using functional neu...
Use of an interactive computer system designed to assist the physician or other health professional in choosing between certain relationships or variables for the purpose of making a diagnostic or therapeutic decision.
Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.
A scenario in decision analysis in which two individuals motivated entirely by self-preservation at the expense of the other, end up in a worse state than if they had cooperated with each other in the decision-making process.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging services offered to consumers outside of the patient-physician relationship.
Clinical Research Organization
Contract Research Organization (CRO) provide research services outsourced on a contract basis to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, healthcare and medical device industries: biopharmaceutical development biologic assay development commercial...
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...