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The association of calcium intake with risk of developing hypertension in the general population has not been established yet. We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus databases up to February 2018 to find prospective observational studies investigating the association of calcium intake with risk of developing hypertension. The reported risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Eight prospective cohort studies (248,398 participants and 30,838 cases) were included. Seven studies measured dietary calcium intake, but one study measured total calcium intake (calcium from food and supplements). A significant inverse association was found for the highest versus lowest category of calcium intake (relative risk: 0.89, 95%
0.86, 0.93; I = 0%, n = 8), and for each 500 mg/d increment (relative risk: 0.93, 95%
0.90, 0.97; I = 64%, n = 7). Summary results were the same with the main analyses when the analyses were restricted only to dietary calcium intake. A nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis exhibited a linear inverse association, with a somewhat steeper trend within the low and moderate intakes. In conclusion, higher dietary calcium intake, independent of adiposity and intake of other blood pressure-related minerals, is slightly associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of clinical nutrition
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Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A pattern of food consumption adopted mainly by the people of North America and Western Europe. It is mainly characterized by high intake of MEAT, processed grains, DIETARY SUGARS, DAIRY PRODUCTS, and DIETARY FATS.
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