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Salinity gradient energy is a sustainable, renewable and clean energy source. When mixing waters with different salinities, the change in Gibbs free energy can be harvested as energy and only brackish water remains. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the technologies able to harvest this sustainable energy source. High power densities have been obtained in small lab-scale systems, but the translation to large industrial scale stacks is essential for commercialization of the technology. Moreover, not only power density is an important parameter, also efficiency, i.e. the amount of energy harvested compared to the amount of energy available in the feed waters, is critical for commercial processes. In the present work, we systematically investigate the influence of stack size and membrane type on power density, thermodynamic efficiency and energy efficiency. Results show that, the residence time is an excellent parameter to compare differently sized stacks and to translate lab scale experimental results to larger pilot stacks. Also, the influence of undesired water permeability and co-ion diffusion (as reflected in permselectivity) is clearly visible when measuring the thermodynamic efficiency. An averaged thermodynamic efficiency of 44.9% is measured when using Fujifilm Type 10 AEM and CEM membranes which have low water permeability and high permselectivity. This value comes close to the thermodynamic maximum of 50%.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
With the rising popularity of Greek-style yogurts in the past few years, the production of acid whey has drastically increased. If sweet whey is usually further processed, the acid whey valorization c...
Bauxite residue, a major by-product of the alumina-producing Bayer process, is a serious environmental pollutant due to its high alkalinity. Here, we reported an operation system designed in our labor...
A lab scale electrodialysis (ED) which consisted of eleven pieces of cation-exchange membranes (CEMs) and ten pieces of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) was used to treat concentrated brine of Reverse ...
Biological conversion of CO to value-added chemicals and biofuels has emerged as an attractive strategy to address the energy and environmental concerns caused by the over-reliance on fossil fuels. In...
Bioprocess for successive bio-production of glycolic acid (GA) from ethylene glycol (EG) using Gluconobacter oxydans is hindered by strong end-product inhibitory effect. Based on the model of compress...
This study is to determine whether scaling and root planing (SRP) followed by photodynamic disinfection results in improved outcomes that persist over time in adults with chronic periodont...
Primary Objective: To identify changes in systemic markers of inflammation following periodontal treatment, comparing two standard treatment modalities (hands scaling and ultrasonic scali...
This study is to determine whether scaling and root planning (SRP) followed by photodynamic disinfection results in improved outcomes that persist over time in adults with chronic periodon...
This study is a prospective randomized open-label controlled study in which the Pocket-X Gel, a periodontal in-situ gelling product, or Pocket-X Chip, a periodontal film, will be applied t...
Laser therapy has been proposed as a novel treatment option in controlling subgingival microorganisms. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluates the effect of 980nm diode laser a...
Designation for several severe forms of ichthyosis, present at birth, that are characterized by hyperkeratotic scaling. Infants may be born encased in a collodion membrane which begins shedding within 24 hours. This is followed in about two weeks by persistent generalized scaling. The forms include bullous (HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC), non-bullous (ICHTHYOSIS, LAMELLAR), wet type, and dry type.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A ribonuclease activity that is a component of the HIV REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE. It removes the RNA strand of the RNA-DNA heteroduplex produced by reverse transcription. Once the RNA moiety is removed a double stranded DNA copy of the HIV RNA can be synthesized.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.