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Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown superior performance on the task of single-label image classification. However, the applicability of CNNs to multilabel images still remains an open problem, mainly because of two reasons. First, each image is usually treated as an inseparable entity and represented as one instance, which mixes the visual information corresponding to different labels. Second, the correlations amongst labels are often overlooked. To address these limitations, we propose a deep Multi-Modal CNN for Multi-Instance Multi-Label image classification, called MMCNNMIML. By combining CNNs with Multi-Instance Multi-Label (MIML) learning, our model represents each image as a bag of instances for image classification and inherits the merits of both CNNs and MIML. In particular, MMCNN-MIML has three main appealing properties: i) It can automatically generate instance representations for MIML by exploiting the architecture of CNNs. ii) It takes advantage of the label correlations by grouping labels in its later layers. iii) It incorporates the textual context of label groups to generate multi-modal instances, which are effective in discriminating visually similar objects belonging to different groups. Empirical studies on several benchmark multilabel image datasets show that MMCNN-MIML significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines on multi-label image classification tasks.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: IEEE transactions on image processing : a publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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