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The surface characteristics of fractured specimens are important in hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiments. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional (3D) scanning device assembled to study these surface characteristics. Cube-shaped rock specimens were produced in the laboratory and subjected to triaxial loading until the specimen split in two in a hydraulic fracturing experiment. Each fractured specimen was placed on a rotating platform and scanned to produce 3D superficial coordinates of the surface of the fractured specimen. The scanned data were processed to produce high-precision digital images of the fractured model, a surface contour map and accurate values of the superficial area and specimen volume. The images produced by processing the 3D scanner data provided detailed information on the morphology of the fractured surface and mechanism of fracture propagation. High-precision 3D mapping of the fractured surfaces is essential for quantitative analysis of fractured specimens. The 3D scanning technology presented here is an important tool for the study of fracture characteristics in hydraulic fracturing experiments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Royal Society open science
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Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
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