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The aim of this study is to evaluate the definition of water chemical type, with particular attention to soda brine characteristics by assessing ionic composition and pH values on a large geographic scale and broad salinity (TDS) range of Eurasian inland saline surface waters, in order to rectify the considerable confusion about the exact chemical classification of soda lakes and pans. Data on pH and on the concentration of eight major ions were compiled into a database drawn from Austria, China, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Serbia, and Turkey. The classification was primarily based on dominant ions exceeding an equivalent percentage of 25 (> 25e%) of the total cations or anions, and the e% rank of dominant ions was also identified. We identified four major types: waters dominated by (1) Na-HCO3 (10.0%), (2) Na-HCO3 + CO3 (31.4%), (3) Na-Cl (45.9%), and (4) Na-SO4 (12.7%), considering only the first ion by e% rank. These major types can be divided into 30 subtypes in the dataset, taking into account the e% rank of all dominant ions. The major and subtypes of soda brine can be divided into "Soda" and "Soda-Saline" types. "Soda type" when Na+ and HCO3- + CO32- are the first in the rank of dominant ions (> 25e%), and "Soda-Saline type" when Na+ is the first in the rank of dominant cations and the sum of HCO3- + CO32- concentration exceeds 25e%, but it is not the first in the rank of dominant anions. Soda-saline type can be considered as a separate evolutionary stage between Soda and Saline types respect to the geochemical interpretation by saturation indexes of brines. The obtained overlapping ranges in distribution demonstrate that a pH measurement alone is not a reliable indicator to classify the permanent alkaline "soda type" and various other types of temporary alkaline waters.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
To establish the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) in patients with Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS), which is characterized by the abrupt onset of ...
The origin and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in porewater of lake sediments is intricate and decisive for fate of pollutants including mercury (Hg). While there are many reports on the...
The preliminary assessment of the properties of alginate immobilized aquatic weed Myriophyllum spicatum beads-MsAlg in a multi-element system of nine Serbian lakes water samples was done. Herein, the ...
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This pilot study is being conducted to evaluate whether consumption of diet soda sweetened with sucralose and acesulfame-potassium leads to changes in the gut microbiota. Following a one w...
It has been suggested that dietary fibers can affect food intake and satiation. Satiation, or meal termination, can be induced by sensory properties and energy density of fiber-rich food p...
This study will evaluate the use of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) at a dose of 1g/Kg/body weight given every three weeks for 6 infusions in pediatric subjects ages 4 - 16 years with m...
The study will be conducted over 18 months. The main objective of this study is to explore the relationships between autobiographical memory and specific cognitive measures, as well as emo...
Background: PANS is an illness that comes on suddenly in children. The full name is Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. It can cause sudden obsessive-compulsive behaviors. It...
A genus of coccoid, extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which grows in alkaline conditions. They are nonmotile and strictly aerobic and are found in soda lakes, alkaline salterns, and soda soils.
A genus of rod-shaped, extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which grows in alkaline conditions. They are strictly aerobic and some strains are motile. Natronobacterium is found in soda lakes, alkaline salterns, and soda soils.
The Commission was created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 under Title XVIII. It is specifically charged to review the effect of Medicare+Choice under Medicare Part C and to review payment policies under Parts A and B. It is also generally charged to evaluate the effect of prospective payment policies and their impact on health care delivery in the US. The former Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC) and the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC) were merged to form MEDPAC.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.