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Zinc is an essential micronutrient affecting many aspects of human health. Cellular Zn homeostasis is critical for cell function and survival. Zn, acting as a first or second messenger, triggers signaling pathways that mediate the physiological roles of Zn. Transient changes in Zn concentrations within the cell or in the extracellular region occur following its release from Zn binding metallothioneins, its transport across membranes by the ZnT or ZIP transporters, or release of vesicular Zn. These transients activate a distinct Zn sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, or modulate numerous proteins and signaling pathways. Importantly, Zn signaling regulates cellular physiological functions such as: proliferation, differentiation, ion transport and secretion. Indeed, novel therapeutic approaches aimed to maintain Zn homeostasis and signaling are evolving. This review focuses on recent findings describing roles of Zn and its transporters in regulating physiological or pathological processes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell calcium
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Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.