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The relations between stress, HPA-axis, and the immune system have been extensively studied; however, no study to date addressed the joint contribution of immune and HPA biomarkers to the development of anxiety in youth exposed to chronic trauma as mediated by mother-child interaction patterns. A unique cohort of war-exposed children and their mothers, compared to matched controls, were followed from infancy and the current study reports findings from early adolescence (mean age = 11.66, SD = 1.23; N = 111; exposed = 58 control = 53). Youth and mothers' salivary cortisol (CT) and secretory immunoglobulin (s-IgA) levels were measured three times during a 4-hour lab visit, mother-child interaction patterns were quantified from a joint task, and children's anxiety symptoms diagnosed. Trauma-exposed children had higher levels of CT and s-IgA, exhibited more anxiety symptoms, and showed lower social collaboration with mother during the joint task. Trauma-exposed mothers had higher CT and s-IgA levels and showed less supportive parenting during mother-child interaction. Structural equation modeling defined three bio-behavioral paths by which trauma increases anxiety in youth. While the first path charted a behavioral link from exposure to child anxiety via diminished maternal support, the other two paths described mediated biological paths, one through HPA-axis functioning, the other via the immune system. Paths via the child's HPA and immune system were mediated by the parallel maternal variable. Findings are the first to describe the complex bio-behavioral interplay of stress and immune biomarkers and parenting behavior in shaping to the development of risk and resilience trajectories in youth growing up amidst chronic trauma.
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Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
A factor associated with the well-being of living organisms that is used as a measure of environmental change and or influence. For example, aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in earthworm tissue is used as an indication of heavy metal pollution in soils. Distinguish from BIOMARKERS.
The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
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