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Efflux transporters function as vacuum cleaners of xenobiotics and therefore they hinder drugs to reach their targets at effective enough concentrations. Efflux pump inhibitors can be used to improve the cell accumulation of drugs, however all the current inhibitors lack selectivity towards cancer cells. L-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), which is expressed in many types of cancer cells can be utilized to target inhibitors of efflux transporters to these cells by converting the inhibitors into LAT1-utilizing prodrugs. In this study, we prepared 5 LAT1-utilizing prodrugs of an efflux pump inhibitor, probenecid (PRB). All novel compounds were transported into human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) mainly via LAT1. The compounds also interacted with either multiresistant proteins (MRPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) and increased significantly (3-4 -fold) the cellular accumulation of anti-cancer agent vinblastine (VBL). Consequently, this improved the anti-proliferative efficacy of VBL by decreasing the cell growth after 72 h from 100% (VBL treatment alone) to 48-75% (combination treatment). However, the same phenomenon was not seen with other chemotherapeutic, methotrexate (MTX). Therefore, the chemotherapeutics need to be selected carefully based on their uptake mechanism to the combinations with LAT1-utilizing prodrugs of efflux pump inhibitors to defeat effectively the multidrug resistance (MDR) of chemotherapy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of pharmaceutics
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An ATP binding cassette transporter, sub-family G protein that functions as a high capacity UREA exporter, transporter of STEROLS, and in the absorption and efflux of many drugs. Its efflux activity for ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS contributes to DRUG RESISTANCE. It functions as a homodimer and is expressed by cells in a variety of organs, as well as by NEOPLASTIC STEM CELLS.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
A zinc efflux transporter highly expressed by ISLET CELLS of the pancreas. It functions in the accumulation of zinc in intracellular vesicles and may be involved in INSULIN maturation and storage processes. Variations in the SLC30A8 gene are associated with susceptibility to DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
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