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Mitochondria are functionally versatile organelles. In addition to their conventional role of meeting the cell's energy requirements, mitochondria also actively regulate innate immune responses against infectious and sterile insults. Components of mitochondria, when released or exposed in response to dysfunction or damage, can be directly recognized by receptors of the innate immune system and trigger an immune response. In addition, despite initiation that may be independent from mitochondria, numerous innate immune responses are still subject to mitochondrial regulation as discrete steps of their signaling cascades occur on mitochondria or require mitochondrial components. Finally, mitochondrial metabolites and the metabolic state of the mitochondria within an innate immune cell modulate the precise immune response and shape the direction and character of that cell's response to stimuli. Together, these pathways result in a nuanced and very specific regulation of innate immune responses by mitochondria.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine
The reprogramming of cellular metabolism has emerged as a major aspect of innate immune cell activation. Mitochondria, which are well known for their critical functions in cellular bioenergetics and m...
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Cytosolic signaling adaptor proteins that were initially discovered by their role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of organisms that lack an adaptive immune system. This class of proteins contains three domains, a C-terminal ligand recognition domain, an N-terminal effector-binding domain, and a centrally located nuclear-binding oligomerization domain. Many members of this class contain a C-terminal leucine rich domain which binds to PEPTIDOGLYCAN on the surface of BACTERIA and plays a role in pathogen resistance.
Intracellular signaling proteins that are defined by the presence of a NUCLEOTIDE-binding region and LEUCINE-rich repeats. Their general structure consists of any of a variety of effector domains at their N-termini such as a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), a central nucleotide-binding domain, and a variable number of C-terminal leucine-rich repeats. They are important for pathogen recognition in the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE of animals and plants. Members of the NLR protein family include the NOD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
A regulator of APOPTOSIS that functions as an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. It contains three baculoviral IAP repeats in its N-terminal half, a CARD DOMAIN, and a RING finger domain at its C-terminus. It is highly expressed in fetal lung and kidney, and adult lymphoid tissues such as spleen, thymus, and peripheral blood lymphocytes. It functions in INFLAMMATION signaling, the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE, cell growth and proliferation, and metastasis of tumor cells.
A heterogeneous, immature population of myeloid cells that can suppress the activity of T-CELLS and NATURAL KILLER CELLS in the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE and ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE. They play important roles in ONCOGENESIS; INFLAMMATION; and INFECTION.
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