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Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many advanced stage cancers. Preexisting immunity is necessary for a response to these agents, which are most effective in inflamed tumors since they principally act by reinforcing pre-existing antitumor T-cell responses. An important goal of therapy is to convert the tumor environment from non-inflamed to inflamed in order to facilitate subsequent response to checkpoint inhibitors. Clinical trials are underway to identify checkpoint inhibitor-based combination approaches which may help to achieve this goal. Areas covered: Anti-PD-1 agents are being assessed in combination with different treatments (e.g. TLR9 agonists, oncolytic peptides, oncolytic vaccines, LAG-3, HDAC inhibitors, GITR, recombinant human interleukin-2) with promising results. PD-1 agents are also being assessed in combination with other locoregional or systemic treatment modalities, including ECT, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, with promising results being achieved. Expert commentary: Emerging approaches based on combinations with anti-PD-1 agents seem to offer increased efficacy compared with anti-PD-1 monotherapy. Such combinations also appear to be well tolerated, with safety profiles often comparable to those seen with anti-PD-1 monotherapy. These combination approaches are likely to become an increasing focus of research. There is also the potential for triplet anti-PD-1 combinations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Expert review of clinical pharmacology
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Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Physicians specializing in MEDICAL ONCOLOGY or its sub-specialties of RADIATION ONCOLOGY or SURGICAL ONCOLOGY.
Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.
The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
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