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Sediments nearby harbors are dredged regularly, and the sediments require the stringent treatment to meet the regulations on reuse and mitigate the environmental burdens from toxic pollutants. In this study, FeCl was chosen as an extraction agent to treat marine sediment co-contaminated with Cu, Zn, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). In chemical extraction process, the extraction efficiency of Cu and Zn by FeCl was compared with the conventional one using inorganic acids (HSO and HCl). Despite the satisfactory level for extraction of Cu (78.8%) and Zn (73.3%) by HCl (0.5 M) through proton-enhanced dissolution, one critical demerit, particularly acidified sediment, led to the unwanted loss of Al, Fe, and Mg by dissolution. Moreover, the vast amount of HCl required the huge amounts of neutralizing agents for the post-treatment of the sediment sample via the washing process. Despite a low concentration, extraction of Cu (70.1%) and Zn (69.4%) was done by using FeCl (0.05 M) through proton-enhanced dissolution, ferric-organic matter complexation, and oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals. Ferric iron (Fe) was reduced to ferrous iron (Fe) with sulfide (S) oxidation during FeCl extraction. In consecutive chemical oxidations using hydrogen peroxide (HO) and persulfate (SO), the resultant ferrous iron was used to activate the oxidants to effectively degrade TPH. SO using FeCl solution (molar ratio of ferrous to SO is 19.8-198.3) removed 42.6% of TPH, which was higher than that by HO (molar ratio of ferrous to HO is 1.2-6.1). All experimental findings suggest that ferric is effectively accommodated to an acid washing step for co-contaminated marine sediments, which leads to enhanced extraction, cost-effectiveness, and less environmental burden.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Restoration of an environment, ecosystem, or habitat that was physically damaged during land development or by natural disaster, or contaminated by ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
The reaction of potassium ferrocyanide with ferric iron to yield a dark blue precipitate at the sites of the ferric iron. Used to determine ferric iron in tissues, particularly in the diagnosis of disorders of iron metabolism.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.