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Various drugs have been designed in the past to act on intracellular targets. For the desired effects to be exerted, these drugs should reach and accumulate in specific subcellular organelles. CX-5461 represents a potent small-molecule inhibitor of rRNA synthesis that specifically inhibits the transcription driven by RNA polymerase (Pol) I and induces tumor cell death through triggering a pro-death autophagy. In the current study an innovative kind of CX-5461-loaded mesoporous silica nano-particles enveloped by polyethylene glycol (PEG), polydopamine (PDA) and AS-1411 aptamer (MSNs-CX-5461@PDA-PEG-APt) with the aim of treating cancer cells was constructed, in which the high-surface-area MSNs allowed for high drug loading, PDA acted as gatekeeper to prevent the leakage of CX-5461 from MSNs, PEG grafts on PDA surfaces increased the stable and biocompatible property in physiological condition, and AS-1411 aptamer promoted the nucleolar accumulation of CX-5461. MSNs-CX-5461@PDA-PEG-APt was characterized regarding releasing characteristics, steadiness, encapsulation of drugs, phase boundary potential as well as sizes of particles. Expectedly, In vitro assays showed that aptamer AS-1411 significantly increased the nucleolar accumulation of CX-5461. The aptamer-tagged CX-5461-loaded MSNs demonstrated to be more cytotoxic to cervical cancer cells compared to the control MSNs, due to relatively strong inhibition of rRNA transcription and induction of pro-death autophagy. The in vivo treatment with AS-1411-tagged CX-5461-loaded MSNs showed a stronger distribution in tumor tissues by animal imaging assay and a significantly higher inhibition effect on the growth of HeLa xenografts compared to AS-1411-untagged CX-5461-loaded MSNs. In addition, histology analysis indicated that MSNs-CX-5461@PDA-PEG-APt did not exhibit any significant toxicity on main organs. These results collectively suggested that MSNs-CX-5461@PDA-PEG-APt represents both a safe and potentially nucleolus-targeting anti-cancer drug.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta biomaterialia
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Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...