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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represents a growth factor with important pro-angiogenic activity, having a mitogenic and an anti-apoptotic effect on endothelial cells, increasing the vascular permeability, promoting cell migration, etc. Due to these effects, it actively contributes in regulating the normal and pathological angiogenic processes. In humans, the VEGF family is composed of several members: VEGF-A (which has different isoforms), VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-E (viral VEGF), VEGF-F (snake venom VEGF), placenta growth factor (PlGF), and, recently, to this family has been added endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF). VEGF binds to tyrosine kinase cell receptors (VEGFRs): VEGFR-1 [Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt-1)], VEGFR-2 [kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) in human; fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1) in mouse] and VEGFR-3 [Fms-like tyrosine kinase 4 (Flt-4)]. While VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 are expressed predominantly on vascular endothelial cells, VEGFR-3 is expressed especially on lymphatic endothelial cells. VEGFR-2 has the strongest pro-angiogenic activity and a higher tyrosine kinase activity than VEGFR-1. Endothelial cells also express co-receptors, such as neuropilin-1 (NP-1) and neuropilin-2 (NP-2), which modulate tyrosine kinase receptor activity. Both VEGF and VEGFRs are expressed not only on endothelial cells, but also on non-endothelial cells. This article aims to highlight the most recent data referring to the VEGF family and its receptors, as well as its implications in the angiogenesis process. At present, blocking angiogenesis in cancer or in other pathological processes, using anti-VEGF and anti-VEGFRs therapies, is considered to be extremely important.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
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To evaluate ocular and general safety of topical anti-human VEGF bevacizumab and the effect on serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) values in healthy dogs.
Antiangiogenics (AAs) which are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors might have high grade adverse events (AEs) on the cardio-vascular system. This...
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A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A vascular endothelial growth factor whose expression is found largely restricted to the GONADS; ADRENAL CORTEX; and PLACENTA. It has similar biological activity to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-A.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...