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Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by structural and/or functional cardiac abnormalities, resulting in a reduced cardiac output and/or elevated intracardiac pressures at rest or during stress. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in Internal Medicine departments. This article aims at reviewing evidence of the importance of ultrasound in HF both for hospitalized patients and in the follow-up. Ultrasound may be used as a recovery monitoring instrument at the bedside and also as a global cardiovascular assessment tool for these patients. HF represents an exciting opportunity to create an integrative ultrasound approach in Internal Medicine and/or Geriatric departments. The authors plan a five-step ultrasound examination to evaluate and monitor HF patients during hospitalization and follow-up. They call this examination: the "ABCDE" score. It includes the evaluations of A, the ankle-brachial index, B, the B-lines, C, the carotid intima media thickness, D, the diameter of the abdominal aorta and of the inferior cava vein and E, the echocardiographic assessment of the ejection fraction. This score may represent an integrative ultrasound approach in Internal Medicine and/or Geriatric departments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current problems in cardiology
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A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.
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