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Sulfate removal from mine or process water is a key issue in the mining industry. In this paper, precipitation with lime (calcium oxide) was integrated with electrocoagulation for sulfate removal from Pyhäsalmi/Finland mine water. Sulfate precipitation with calcium oxide decreased the sulfate concentration from 13,000 mg/L to 1600 mg/L. Various current densities were applied to the pre-treated mine water with various electrodes and aluminium and iron anodes. It was found that 25 mA/cm was the best tested current density for both anode types. At the second stage, this current density was used for different iron and aluminium anodes in various monopolar and bipolar configurations. It was found that this hybridisation is effective for sulfate removal, and that a bipolar configuration showed better results than the monopolar configuration. The best result was gained from 25 mA/cm with a two aluminium and two stainless steel anode-cathode configuration and calcium oxide pre-treatment to reach pH 12. The removal efficiency reached 84.4% and 63.8% with aluminium anodes in bipolar and monopolar configurations, respectively. This setup was able to decrease sulfate concentrations from 13,000 mg/L to 250 mg/L, which meets mine water discharge limits. Kinetic studies showed that iron and aluminium anodes obey pseudo-second order kinetic. Finally, the energy consumption was calculated.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
Sulfate (SO) is a ubiquitous anion in natural waters. It is not considered toxic, but it may be detrimental to freshwater species at elevated concentrations. Mining activities are one significant sour...
Manganese (Mn) is the third most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust. Decades of increasing worldwide mining activities have inevitably led to the release of large amounts of this metal int...
The efficient removal of Se(VI) from sulfate-rich water is challenging as most reported processes last for hours to days. In this study, a combined sulfite/UV/Fe(III) coagulation process was proposed ...
Mining-influenced water (MIW) remediation is challenging, not only due to its acidity and high metal content, but also due to its presence in remotely located mine sites with difficult surrounding env...
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness in removing chemical exposure on hand, we compare removal efficiency of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on hands by hand washing wit...
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem in the world. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in children from 6 to 24 months of age and...
To evaluate the efficacy of water bath, water + bleach, and water + vinegar (acetic acid) in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)
The aims of the present study is to compare oral sulfate solution (OSS) with low-dose polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (2-L PEG/Asc) for bowel cleansing efficacy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ozonated water on pain, edema and trismus after third molar removal. Patients were submitted to extraction of lower third molar under ir...
An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 22.214.171.124.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 126.96.36.199.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Over half of Bipolar cases develops before the age of 25. Bipolar ...