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Since the early 1960s, an alternative wastewater discharge practice at The Pennsylvania State University has been researched and its impacts monitored. Rather than discharging treated wastewater to a stream, and thereby directly impacting the stream quality, the effluent is applied to forested and cropped land managed by the University. Concerns related to reductions in soil hydraulic conductivity occur when considering wastewater reuse. The methodology described in this manuscript, matching soil sample size with the size of the laboratory-based hydraulic conductivity measurement apparatus, provides the benefits of a relatively rapid collection of samples with the benefits of controlled laboratory boundary conditions. The results suggest that there may have been some impact of wastewater reuse on the soil's ability to transmit water at deeper depths in the depressional areas of the site. Most of the reductions in the soil hydraulic conductivity in the depressions appear to be related to the depth from which the sample was collected, and by inference, associated with the soil structural and textural differences.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE
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A genus of colorless, filamentous, rod-shaped bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE, containing sulfur globules. Thiothrix species are found as components of BIOFILMS in irrigation systems and wastewater treatment plants, and in marine environments as endosymbionts.
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing solution which is inserted and then removed. Any drug in the irrigation solution may be absorbed.
Irrigation of the nose with saline or irrigation solutions for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to remove irritants, allergens, or microorganisms from the nose.