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Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) modulates vascular tone and altered PVAT function is observed in vascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. We discovered that the PVAT surrounding rat thoracic aorta (RA) and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) contain significant amounts of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). We hypothesized that the 5-HT contained within the PVAT is functional and vasoactive. Isolated tissue baths were used for isometric contractility studies and high performance liquid chromatography was used to quantitatively measure amines in the PVAT and release studies. The 5-HT releaser fenfluramine (10 nM-100 µM) was tested for its ability to contract arteries with and without PVAT. Contraction was reported as a percentage of the initial contraction to 10 µM phenylephrine. The RA with PVAT contracted to fenfluramine to a greater maximum (98 ± 10%) than RA without PVAT (24 ± 4%), while no difference in contraction of SMA to maximum fenfluramine with (78 ± 2%) and without (75 ± 6%) PVAT was observed. Contradicting our hypothesis, the maximum contraction of RA with PVAT to fenfluramine was diminished by the alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin (100 nM; vehicle: 71 ± 4%, prazosin: 24 ± 2%) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor nisoxetine (1 µM; vehicle: 71 ± 4%, nisoxetine: 25 ± 4%) but not the 5-HT receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 nM) or serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 µM). To test if fenfluramine caused release of 5-HT or NE from PVAT, PVAT from RA was incubated with vehicle or fenfluramine (10 µM-10 mM), and amines released into the incubating buffer were quantified. A pronounced concentration-dependent NE-release (more than 5-HT) was observed. Collectively, this research illustrates the pharmacology of fenfluramine to primarily stimulate NE release (better than 5-HT) in a NET-dependent manner, leading to vasoconstriction. This adds additional support to PVAT as being an important reservoir of amines.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacological research
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