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Substantial progress has been made since the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis in 1988 (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) types, type 2 (WPV2) was declared eradicated in 2015, and type 3 (WPV3) has not been reported since 2012 (1). In 2017 and 2018, only Afghanistan and Pakistan have reported WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission (1). When global eradication of poliomyelitis is achieved, facilities retaining poliovirus materials need to minimize the risk for reintroduction of poliovirus into communities and reestablishment of transmission. Poliovirus containment includes biorisk management requirements for laboratories, vaccine production sites, and other facilities that retain polioviruses after eradication; the initial milestones are for containment of type 2 polioviruses (PV2s). At the 71st WHA in 2018, World Health Organization (WHO) Member States adopted a resolution urging acceleration of poliovirus containment activities globally, including establishment by the end of 2018 of national authorities for containment (NACs) to oversee poliovirus containment (2). This report summarizes containment progress since the previous report (3) and outlines remaining challenges. As of August 2018, 29 countries had designated 81 facilities to retain PV2 materials; 22 of these countries had established NACs. Although there has been substantial progress, intensification of containment measures is needed.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only WPV type 1 (WPV1) has been reported in polio cases or detected from environmental surveillance globally since 2012. Pakistan remains one of only t...
Widespread use of live attenuated (Sabin) oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has resulted in marked progress toward global poliomyelitis eradication (1). However, in underimmunized populations, extensive p...
Pakistan began using inactivated poliovirus vaccine alongside oral vaccine in mass campaigns to accelerate eradication of wild-type poliovirus in 2014. Using case-based and environmental surveillance ...
Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 (1), the number of polio cases worldwide has declined by >99.99%. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1)...
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis, is acquired by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) infected with its larvae. The worm typically emerge...
Type 2 component of oral poliovirus vaccine is slated for global withdrawal through a switch from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) for pr...
This prospective annual release study is designed to evaluate the safety of 1 new influenza virus vaccine strain to be included in FluMist Quadrivalent for the 2017-2018 influenza season.
This is an open-label phase IV randomized clinical trial that will assess intestinal and humoral immunity among infants who receive a combination of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine type...
A First in Human Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of a Single Dose of a Trivalent Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Based on Sabin Strains (sIPV) Given Intramuscularly in Healthy Adults
The main purpose of this study is to assess the safety and tolerability of a single dose of JNJ-64152348, inactivated poliovirus vaccine produced from Sabin poliovirus strains on PER.C6 ce...
The purpose of this study was to evaluated the effectiveness of inactivated poliovirus vaccine at a vaccine schedule that is commonly used in developing countries. The effectiveness of in...
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)