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Growing numbers of nanotoxicity research demonstrating that mechanical damage and oxidative stress are potential modes of nanoparticles (NPs) induced toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which NPs interact with the eukaryotic cell and affect their physiological and metabolic functions are not fully known. We investigated the toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and elucidated the underlying mechanism. We observed cell wall damage and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cell death upon ZnO-NPs exposure. We detected a significant change in the cellular distribution of lipid biosynthetic enzymes (Fas1 and Fas2). Furthermore, exposure of ZnO-NPs altered the architecture of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria as well as ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex causing cellular toxicity due to lipid disequilibrium and proteostasis. We also observed significant changes in heat shock and unfolded protein responses, monitored by Hsp104-GFP localization and cytosolic Hac1 splicing respectively. Moreover, we observed activation of MAP kinases of CWI (Mpk1) and HOG (Hog1) pathways upon exposure to ZnO-NPs. Transcript level analyses showed induction of chitin synthesis and redox homeostasis genes. Finally, we observed induction in lipid droplets (LDs) formation, distorted vacuolar morphology and induction of autophagy as monitored by localization of Atg8p. However, we did not observe any significant change in epigenetic marks, examined by western blotting. Altogether, we provide evidence that exposure of ZnO-NPs results in cell death by affecting cell wall integrity and ER homeostasis as well as accumulation of ROS and saturated free fatty acids.
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Metal oxide nanoparticles can exert adverse effects on humans and aquatic organisms, however, their toxic mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated the toxic effects and mechanisms of copper oxide...
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted much attention because of their particular physico-chemical properties, including superparamagnetism. These features make them suitable for many purposes ...
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated into a variety of commercial applications and consumer products; however, ENMs may possess cytotoxic properties due to their small size. T...
In the recent times, nanomaterials are used in many sectors of science, medicine and industry, without revealing its toxic effects. Thus, it is in urgent need for exploring the toxicity along with the...
Due to unique optical and electronic properties tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO NPs) have shown potential for various applications including solar cell, catalyst, and biomedicine. However, there is limit...
Assessment of the impact of oral Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) application on acute diarrhoea and the development of prolonged and persistent diarrhoea in paediatric patients hospitali...
The nanoparticles (NP) are defined as particles whose size is no greater than 100 nanometers. However, their impact on health remains little evaluated. Placental transfer of NP has been p...
This is a phase 1 clinical trial evaluating the safety, tolerability of escalating doses of AGuIX-NP in combination with radiation and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced cervical ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether oral topic silver nanoparticles are effective to reduce potential pathogen microbial loads in mechanical ventilation patients.
BIND-014 (docetaxel nanoparticles for injectable suspension) is being studied in patients with v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation positive or squamous cel...
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism. The NANOPARTICLES; and MICROSPHERES of its mineral form, magnetite, have many biomedical applications.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...