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Intraspecific trait variation is receiving renewed interest as a factor affecting the structure of multi-species communities within and across trophic levels. One pervasive form of intraspecific trait variation is sexual dimorphism in animals and plants, which might exert large effects particularly on the communities of host-associated organisms, but the extent of these effects is not well understood. We investigated whether host-associated microbial communities developed differently in the floral nectar of female and male individuals of the dioecious shrubs, Eurya emarginata and E. japonica. We found that nectar-colonizing microbes such as bacteria and fungi were more than twice as prevalent and, overall, more than 10 times as abundant in male flowers as in female flowers. Microbial species composition also differed between flower sexes. To examine potential mechanisms behind these differences, we manipulated the frequency of flower visitation by animals and the order of arrival of microbial species to nectar. Animal visitation frequency affected microbial communities more greatly in male flowers, while arrival order affected them more in female flowers. These sex-specific effects appeared attributable to differences in how animals and microbes altered the chemical characteristics of nectar that limited microbial growth. Taken together, our results provide evidence that sexual dimorphism can have large effects on the structure of host-associated communities.
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Sexual dimorphism in morphology, physiology or life history traits is common in dioecious plants at reproductive maturity, but it is typically inconspicuous or absent in juveniles. Although plants of ...
Sexual dimorphism is a substantial contributor to the diversity observed in nature, extending from elaborate traits to the expression level of individual genes. Sexual conflict and sexually antagonist...
Gender differences in the incidences of cancers have been found in almost all human cancers. However, the mechanisms that underlie gender disparities in most human cancer types have been under-investi...
height variations across cohorts are a proxy of the evolution of living conditions and, specifically, of the nutritional status of a given population. However, the interpretation of the changes in sta...
A study on relative growth, sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory was carried out in a population of the aeglidAegla marginata coming from Barrinha River, Iguape River Basin, Tunas do Paraná, ...
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Dating and sexual violence are significant public health concerns occurring on a continuum of severity across the lifespan, with serious consequences to victims and society. The present re...
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Berries have been shown to improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses to sucrose. During processing and storage of berry products, sucrose is inverted to glucose and fructose. The ...
The aim of this study is to develop an evidence-based psychosocial intervention for sexual minority women. This intervention will specifically target the adverse mental and behavioral heal...
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
A sexual disorder occurring in a person 16 years or older and that is recurrent with intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (generally age 13 or younger). (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994).
The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of sexual health; "the state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being related to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction and infirmity. Sexual health requires a posit...