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Paradoxical effects of mutant ubiquitin on Aβ plaque formation in an Alzheimer mouse model.

08:00 EDT 18th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Paradoxical effects of mutant ubiquitin on Aβ plaque formation in an Alzheimer mouse model."

Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a prominent pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They consist of aggregated Aβ peptides, which are generated through sequential proteolytic processing of the transmembrane protein amyloid precursor protein (APP) and several Aβ-associated factors. Efficient clearance of Aβ from the brain is thought to be important to prevent the development and progression of AD. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the major pathways for protein breakdown in cells and it has been suggested that impaired UPS-mediated removal of protein aggregates could play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. To study the effects of an impaired UPS on Aβ pathology in vivo, transgenic APP/PS1ΔE9 mice (APPPS1) were crossed with transgenic mice expressing mutant ubiquitin (UBB), a protein-based inhibitor of the UPS. Surprisingly, the APPPS1/UBB crossbreed showed a remarkable decrease in Aβ plaque load during aging. Further analysis showed that UBB expression transiently restored PS1-NTF expression and γ-secretase activity in APPPS1 mice. Concurrently, UBB decreased levels of β-APP-CTF, which is a γ-secretase substrate. Although UBB reduced Aβ pathology in APPPS1 mice, it did not improve the behavioral deficits in these animals.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neurobiology of aging
ISSN: 1558-1497
Pages: 62-71

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.

A single protein comprised of tandem repeats of the UBIQUITIN 78-amino acid sequence. It is a product of the polyubiquitin gene which contains multiple copies of the ubiquitin coding sequence. Proteolytic processing of ubiquitin C results in the formation of individual ubiquitin molecules. This protein is distinct from POLYUBIQUITIN, which is a protein formed through isopeptide linkage of multiple ubiquitin species.

Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).

A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.

A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.

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