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The techno-environmental performance of a medium-scale wastewater treatment system using high-rate algal ponds was evaluated through mass and energy balances and life cycle assessment. The system involves wastewater primary treatment, microalgae-based secondary treatment, thermal hydrolysis with steam explosion of microalgae, anaerobic co-digestion of pre-treated microalgal biomass and primary sludge, and biogas cogeneration. Furthermore, two scenarios based on alternative biogas uses were considered: (i) biogas for heat and electricity, and (ii) biogas for heat, electricity, and biomethane. Pumping wastewater to the primary settler arose as the main source of electricity consumption. When compared to conventional activated sludge plants, a large decrease in the energy consumption was observed for the secondary treatment. Moreover, a favourable life-cycle performance was generally found for the microalgae-based systems when displacing conventional energy products. Finally, the preference for a specific scenario on biogas use was found to be highly conditioned by the techno-environmental aspects prioritised by decision-makers.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioresource technology
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Investigators examined the associations between SSS, energy balance, food intake and changes in body composition following a high calorie lunch for 2 weeks.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.