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The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to harmful luminal content, and uptake is closely controlled and regulated by neuro-immune factors. If control is broken, it might lead to ongoing enhanced mucosal permeability, potentially resulting in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The importance of mast cells in the regulation of the mucosal barrier has become obvious, and increased numbers and more activated mast cells have been observed in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease. To target the disturbed mucosal permeability, directly or via mast cells, is therefore currently of major interest. For example, administration of mast cell stabilizers and probiotics have shown promising effects in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in pharmacology
Headaches and abdominal pain are among the most common pediatric pain conditions. Mast cells have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraines, as well as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritabl...
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by dysregulated gut-brain interactions. Emerging evidence shows that low-grade mucosal inflammation and immune activation contribute to ...
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent worldwide and may have an important impact on the quality of life of affected patients. In addition, they are associated with a major socio-e...
Vasculitides are characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels leading to vessel occlusion and ischemic damages of tissues. Among the inflammatory cells involved in vasculitides, neutrop...
Interleukin (IL)-31 is important for innate immunity in mucosal tissues and skin, and increased IL-31 expression participates in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases affecting the skin, a...
There has been recent interest into the potential role of mucosal barrier defects in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). There has been evidence of increa...
This is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in healthy volunteers. In the first part, the duodenum of the participants will be perfused with acid or saline, during which intragast...
Activation of mast cells in the immune system is known to cause allergic reactions sometimes with severe systemic symptoms. The investigators have recently developed a blood-based mast cel...
This pilot-study aims to evaluate the effect size and feasibility of internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for children (age 8-12 years) with pain-predominant functional gas...
Some people develop chronic abdominal pain with diarrhea or constipation after an episode of acute bacterial gastroenteritis. These symptoms can be consistent with post-infectious irritabl...
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A group of disorders caused by the abnormal proliferation of MAST CELLS in a variety of extracutaneous tissues including bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. Systemic mastocytosis is commonly seen in adults. These diseases are categorized on the basis of clinical features, pathologic findings, and prognosis.
A form of systemic mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC) characterized by the presence of large numbers of tissue MAST CELLS in the peripheral blood without skin lesions. It is a high-grade LEUKEMIA disease with bone marrow smear of >20% MAST CELLS, multi-organ failure and a short survival.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common but poorly understood chronic (long-term) condition where the normal functions of the bowel are disrupted. Symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, changes in bowel habits and bloated feelings. ...