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Metformin (MET) is among the most consumed pharmaceuticals worldwide. This compound has been frequently detected in fresh surface water. However, ecotoxicological information for MET is still too limited, particularly regarding chronic and behavioral data. This study aimed to help filling these knowledge gaps, by carrying out both acute and chronic studies with four different test organisms from three different trophic levels. We assessed different endpoints, including the swimming behavior of Danio rerio larvae. We also derived both short-term and long-term environmental quality standards (EQS) for the protection of freshwater pelagic biota towards MET adverse effects. A risk quotient (RQ) was calculated for MET in fresh surface water, considering a worst-case scenario. Daphnia similis was by far the most sensitive species evaluated. An EC of 4.4 mg L was obtained from the reproduction test with D. similis. A long-term EQS of 88 μg L was derived and a RQ of 0.38 was obtained. An ecological risk is not expected for the chronic exposure of pelagic freshwater species to MET, considering the endpoints and the standard bioassays usually recommended in standard protocols. However, endocrine disruptive effects and potential interactive effects of MET with other co-occurring contaminants cannot be ruled out. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first data related with MET effects on population endpoints of D. similis and Hydra attenuata, as well as on the locomotor activity of D. rerio.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
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