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Heavy metal pollution can decrease the soil microbial biomass and significantly alter microbial community structure. In this study, a long-term field experiment (5 years) and short-term laboratory experiment (40 d) were employed to evaluate the effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn), and their combinations at different concentrations, on the soil microbial biomass and the bacterial community. The ranges of heavy metal concentration in the long-term and short-term experiments were similar, with concentration ranges of Cd, Cu and Zn of about 0.3-1.5, 100-500, and 150-300 mg kg, respectively. Microbial biomass decreased with increasing soil heavy metal concentrations in both the long-term and short-term experiments. The interaction between soil physicochemical factors (pH, TN, TC) and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) played a major role in change in the bacterial community in long-term polluted soil. In the laboratory experiment, although each heavy metal had an adverse effect on the microbial biomass and community structure, Cu appeared to have a greater role in the changes compared to Cd and Zn. However, the synergistic effects of the heavy metals were greater than those of the single metals and the synergistic effect between Cu and Cd was greater than that of Cu and Zn.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. Each colony (i.e., microbial colony-forming unit) represents the progeny of a single cell in the original inoculum. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).