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Triclosan, an extensively used antimicrobial agent, enters agroecosystems when sewage sludge and reclaimed water are applied to agricultural fields, and may trigger a series of plant physiological and biochemical responses. However, few studies have investigated the mechanism by which plant development is affected by triclosan. Here, microscopic, pharmacological and biochemical analyses, and histochemical dye staining were used to explore the effects of triclosan on root growth in wheat plants. Exposure to triclosan inhibited root elongation, and significantly triggered hydrogen peroxide (HO) production and lipid peroxidation in wheat roots. The inhibition of root growth by triclosan was reversed by dimethylthiourea, a HO scavenger, indicating that alterations of endogenous HO concentrations in root cells were likely linked to triclosan-induced root growth inhibition. The addition of butylated hydroxyanisole, a lipophilic antioxidant, during triclosan treatment completely prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation, but did not alleviate triclosan-induced reduction of root growth. In triclosan-treated wheat roots, the level of indole-3-acetic acid decreased by 68.3%, while the contents of two indole-3-acetic acid oxidative metabolites, indole-3-aldehyde and indole-3-carboxylic acid, increased by 71.3% and 314.4%, respectively. Moreover, the oxidation of auxin induced by triclosan in wheat roots was prevented by dimethylthiourea. These results together suggested that the triclosan-enhanced production of HO induced auxin oxidation, thus leading to the suppression of root growth. Findings of this study improve our mechanistic understanding on how antimicrobial agents such as triclosan affect plant root growth.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 220.127.116.11.
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 18.104.22.168.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.