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Despite increased longevity and resistance to multiple stressors, growth hormone receptor null (GHRKO) mice exhibit severe skeletal impairment. The role of GHR in maintaining osteocyte mitochondrial function is unknown. We found that GHR ablation was detrimental to osteocyte mitochondrial function. In vivo multiphoton microscopy revealed significant reductions of >10% in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in GHRKO osteocytes and reduced mitochondrial volumetric density. Reductions in MMP were accompanied by reductions in glucose transporter-1 levels, steady state ATP, NADH redox index, oxygen consumption rate, and mitochondrial reserve capacity in GHRKO osteocytes. Glycolytic capacity did not differ between control and GHRKO males' osteocytes. However, osteocytes from aged female GHRKO mice exhibited reductions in glycolytic parameters, indicating impairments in glucose metabolism, which may be sex dependent. GHRKO osteocytes exhibited increased levels of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS) (both basal and in response to high glucose), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Mitochondrial ROS levels were increased and correlated with reduced glutathione in GHRKO osteocytes. Overall, the compromised osteocyte mitochondrial function and responses to metabolic insults strongly correlated with skeletal impairments, suggesting that despite increased life span of the GHRKO mice, skeletal health span is decreased. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
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A type of osseous tissue which makes up the inner part of bone. It has a spongy, honeycomb-like structure with struts or trabecula and contains the BONE MARROW. It has higher rate of BONE REMODELING turnover than CORTICAL BONE.
A mitochondrial protein consisting of four alpha-subunits and four beta-subunits. It contains enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activities and plays an important role in the metabolism of long chain FATTY ACIDS.
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